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研究画卷波士顿藏(传)阎立本《历代帝王图》

发布时间: 2012-5-1


预读:研究画卷波士顿藏(传)阎立本《历代帝王图》
论文中文摘要:传为初唐阎立本的《历代帝王图》卷(Portraits of the Emperors—AChinese Scroll Painting)在二十世纪初公诸于世,1931年入藏美国波士顿美术馆,此后即不断引起世人的关注。中国早期人物卷轴绘画原迹存世罕见,而此卷作品虽破损严重,几经修补装池,但自北宋富弼题识以来,屡见于著录。根据目前保存的近况观察,画有十三位帝王图像的该画卷可分为前、后二段,分属于两个时期所绘制,后段较早,前段偏晚。本论文对于波士顿本《历代帝王图》的探讨分四个部分(章)展开。第一部分,根据相关文献的检索与本论文作者对于原作的考察,以及对于画卷题跋文字的整理,本论文就波士顿本《历代帝王图》的著录与流传情况作了全面的梳理和考订。通过各种材料的比对与浅析辩证,纠正了前人探讨中的诸多错误与疏漏,形成北宋中期以来的该画卷相对清晰而完整的流传史脉络,并附录有史以来的著录文献目录。第二部分,本论文讨论了该《历代帝王图》的作者、时代与内涵。根据相关史料的浅析,排除了一部分学者所提出的原作者为初唐郎余令的推测,并根据阎立本的事迹,确信该画卷原作者仍为阎立本。进而作者认为,该画卷后半段为唐朝宫廷摹手根据阎立本原作所复制绘画,前半段为北宋人根据后半段中的部分人物组合方式所仿造,而整个画卷,为众多帝王行列图像的残本。至于此画卷的内涵,仍以传统宫廷绘画辅助政教的性质所决定,并无其他具体的用意。第三部分,本论文关注该《历代帝王图》的上下文(context)联系。浅析画卷中的人物图像特点、比较南梁萧绎《职贡图》、并联系阎立本受唐太宗之命所作的其它绘画(《秦府十八学士》、《凌烟阁二十四功臣》)均绘于“阁”上,附属于建筑,且昭陵北阙左右雕刻的14个外族石人,见张彦远所记为阎立本起稿。由此作者认为,该《历代帝王图》当为建筑(或屏风、墙壁)绘画的底本,并且肯定不止于目前所存的帝王人数。第四部分,本论文展开讨论了该《历代帝王图》的母题与视觉传统。展开依据两个方面的材料,其一,是遗存视觉材料的比较,包括后汉武梁祠画像石、北魏司马金龙墓漆屏风、龙门石窟宾阳中洞礼佛图佛雕、敦煌第220窟唐代壁画等;其二是文献材料的浅析,包括三国魏曹植的描述、北魏张彝《历帝图》的一百多位帝王图卷、以及唐代与之相关的文献。以多方面回归《历代帝王图》画卷本身的诠释,并就陈葆真、宁强等人所论的该画卷创作与唐代修史的联系提出质疑。此外,在视觉图式上,本论文将该画卷对于佛教一佛二菩萨——这一外来图式的采纳,与中国传统的拜谒图像也进行了一定的比较浅析。

【English Abstract】 Lidai diwang tu (The Thirteen Emperors) is a Chinese scroll painting attributedto Yan Liben (600–673), a painter in early Tang Dynasty. Pubpcly known in the earlytwentieth century, it was collected by the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (MFA) in1931. Ever since it was inscribed by Fu Bi of the Northern Song Dynasty, the title ofthe painting has been included in writings through dynasties despite the fact that thepainting itself was in a seriously damaged condition and therefore restored forseveral times. One possible reason is that original Chinese scroll figure paintings inthe early period have been rarely seen. The Thirteen Emperors, as what can beobserved from its present condition, features thirteen emperors from formerdynasties and consists of two sections painted in two different periods, the formersection in a late period and the latter in an earper period.As an approach to The Thirteen Emperors of the MFA version, this dissertation isdivided into four chapters.The first chapter is a survey of and examination and correction on the recordingand circulation of The Thirteen Emperors of the MFA version, based on relatedpterature search and the author’s investigation of the original painting and anexamination of the inscription on the painting. Through an analytical comparison ofa variety of documents, the author rectifies the mistakes and omissions in previousresearches on the painting and forms a relatively clear and thorough picture of thecirculation of the painting since the middle Northern Song Dynasty, with abibpography of the writings that include the recordings of the painting since its verybeginning.The second chapter is a discussion of its painter, and its social background andmeanings. Based on an analysis of related historic documents and the social eventsof Yan Liben, the author confirms that the original painter of the painting is YanLiben, rather than Lang Yupng, an early Tang Dynasty painter-official who wasassumed as the original painter of the painting by some scholars. The author furtherpoints out that the latter section of the MFA painting scroll was reproduced by someTang Dynasty court painter(s) after the original painting by Yan Liben, while theformer was a reproduction by Northern Song Dynasty painter(s) based on animitation of patterns of some figures in the latter section. The whole painting scrollof the MFA version is but an incomplete pai

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