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谈文士清代中后期文士题材人物画探讨

发布时间: 2012-5-3


预读:文关照方式,是挖掘传统精神的砌基,为重建并非衰落的百年画史提供了新的探讨成果。      【English Abstract】 My thesis "Studies of Literati as the Subject of Portrait Painting after Qing Dynasty" is focusing on a specific subject, which is the paintings by pterati. It covers material from four reigns of Q谈文士清代中后期文士题材人物画探讨
论文中文摘要:论文《清代中后期文士题材人物画探讨》以清代雍正、乾隆、嘉庆、道光四朝(1723-1850)一百二十余年间人物画中体现的文士题材的作品为探讨对象,浅析其在当时文化背景下的历史演进、题材特点、艺术特点和相关士阶层的社会境遇。通过对大量图本资料的收集、分类和比对,整合清代中后期文士人物造型审美范型、笔墨语言、章法形式的特点和原因,联系士阶层的思想感情,讨论了相关的政治、经济、社会等诸多因素与绘画的联系,发现当时人物画背后真实的社会功能和学术价值。全篇共四章,约十二万余字,图例一百余幅,并附有详实的《清代中后期历史文化背景及论文涉猎画家、人物生平年表》二十万字余和《清代中后期文士题材人物画存世、著录作品年表》四万字余。本着文本细读、尊重历史的原则,以大量图本作品出发,运用了归纳的策略联系画论引出对作品动机功能、特点流变等的论述认识。论文同时利用了量化分类统计的策略,以新的视角结合文化史反思绘画史的不足,推翻了人物画自清衰落的陈见。论文得出结论:清代中后期的文士题材人物画呈现出理想化、怡情性、隐逸性、抒情性的特点,且在文士肖像题材中获得了一定的突破,另外总体上显现出平民化、个性化和诗意性的倾向。文士题材的作者虽以士阶层为主,但出现了宫廷画家的文人化、职业画家的文人化、商人追求文人化甚至隐逸化的显著变化,包括文人画家的世俗化、职业化特点也在文士题材中得到了集中的反应。由此,清代中后期文士题材的描绘,以数量上的绝对优势,涉及社会精神侧面的广泛作用,和贴近生活的艺术体现视角,展现了其具有代表作用的真实面貌,证实了当时人物画以技法、内容、立意、功能上的新变化新特点主要源于社会政治、经济、文化对士阶层存活状态的影响,反证出文人的仕与隐、社会责任与个人怡情、绘画功能意涵之变在文士题材的宣泄中得到了真实地呈现。重读清代中后期文士题材人物画的图本,就是正视绘画史中可能被忽略和简单化的学术内容,以客观的角度重现时代的特殊审美样式、创作脉络和人文关照方式,是挖掘传统精神的砌基,为重建并非衰落的百年画史提供了新的探讨成果。

【English Abstract】 My thesis "Studies of Literati as the Subject of Portrait Painting after Qing Dynasty" is focusing on a specific subject, which is the paintings by pterati. It covers material from four reigns of Qing dynasty includs YongZheng, QianLong, JiaChing, and DaoGuang, totally over one hundred years. It analyzes historical progress from cultural background point of view, particulates of art, and social circumstances where most pterati were engaged to. It sorts out forms of attractiveness, interpretations of brushes through each stroke, compositions, and all the motivations behind it. Likewise, it explores ideas and emotions between pterati, and it helps to discuss the relevance between portrait paintings and poptics, economy, and society. And, it explores the social functions and pterary value beneath these paintings.My thesis has four chapters, and it is over one hundred thousand words with over one hundred illustrations as well. It attached is also with a detailed Chronology of survived paintings of late Qing dynasty about fifty thousand words, and historical events of painters about two hundred thousand words. My thesis follows a deductive approach inorder to avoid prejudgement. Base on significant amount of survived paintings, I categoriz these paintings into two concepts, functions by motivations and changes of emblems. Likewise, I use a statistic strategy that is categorizing each style, and count their quantity of each style. From a new point of view, we combine pterary history in order to prejudge inquires of we have found in painting history. The conclusion of portrait painting were impoverished in late Qing has been overturned.Conclusion of my thesis: the portrait painting in late Qing introduces many characters include, ideapsm, self-entertaining, hermitage, and expressionism. It points out a breakthrough that the subjects of pterati paintings; in general, these paintings tends to be populace, poetic, and more individual. Although most painters are pterati, there is an obvious change alone the way that painters who serves royal famipes, occupational painters, and business people tended to join pterati. In contrary, pterati painters tend to be occupational as well. Thus, the quantity of portrait paintings in late Qing was absolutely undeniable. Paintings the subjects and objects pterati present in their paintings were as close to real pfe as possible. It proved that characters included techniques, concepts, meanings, and functions were changed. This change was due to echoes originated from social poptics, economy, and circumstances pterati were pving. It estab

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