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对于家具中国家具设计的民族性

发布时间: 2012-5-20


预读:对于家具中国家具设计的民族性
论文中文摘要:中国家具是中国文化的结晶。在数千年的进展与演变中,中国人以其睿智才华创造了独具一格的东方家具系统。以中国家具中,可以读到中国人特有的文化观、哲学观及设计观,也可以品察到中国人特有的民族个性。中国家具的民族性是显而易见的,但对其系统探讨,国内外尚未发现。论文利用文化人类学的探讨成果,借助现象学的剖析策略,采取“文化悟道、以道释器”的诠释策略,由中国文化中悟出设计的“因缘”之道,以中国家具赖以形成的物缘、人缘、生缘、时缘、形缘、和缘等方面入手,逐一阐述了中国家具的形原因缘,以而揭示了中国家具的民族性。中国家具设计“精于事因、巧在物缘”。品类上,基于坐、卧、承、贮、隔、挂等生活事因,中国创造了独特的坐具、卧具、承具、庋具、屏具和挂类家具;形制上,中国家具经历了由低矮型到高座型的转变;风格上,中国家具以古至今,经历了以商周家具的“礼仪”、汉魏家具的“庄重”、隋唐家具的“华贵”、宋元家具的“典雅”、明式家具的“简秀”到清式家具的“繁缛”等演变,不同时代体现了相对稳定的时代特点;文化上,“仁礼之道”、“中和节度”等是中国家具隐含的文化动因;哲学上,“天人合一”、“以器载道”是中国家具传统设计观的精华;审美上,“韵、秀、雅、润”分别构成中国家具“形、饰、色、质”的主调,也是中国家具审美的主要特点;理念上,诗性的文化特质,赋予了中国人在家具上的诗意创造和人性阐述;地域上,幅员广阔的中华大地造就了中国家具鲜明的地域特点,也导致了苏式、京式、广式等地域家具风格的出现和千姿百态的民俗家具的形成:布局上,中国人特有的空间观、风水观、整体观等,促成了以对称格局为主的室内家具陈设;造型上,中国人特有的数象思维、整体思维、对称思维等造就了中国家具匠心独运的造型风韵;装饰上,中国装饰之道赋予了中国家具装饰的工艺、策略、图案及题材等鲜明的民族个性;材料上,中国家具与木材结下了不解之缘,尤其对硬木材质极力推崇,书写了家具史上“木质的篇章”;结构上,中国家具师承建筑,经历了以箱式结构到框架结构的形式演变,以其榫卯之合中也折射了中国人特有的模数观及格物致用观;工艺上,制作家具的能工巧匠技艺相通,创造了中国家具特有的工艺形式及工艺之美。当前,以“现代中式”家具走向“新中式”家具风格的设计中,势必对中国古代家具设计合理评价,得以启迪,吸收设计革新的文化符号,提倡和谐设计。只有这样,才能辉古耀今,中国家具的未来将重振昔日明清家具的辉煌。

【English Abstract】 Chinese furniture is the crystalpzation of Chinese culture. In the process of thousands of years’development and evolvement, Chinese people have created a unique oriental furniture system with their sagacity and talents. From the Chinese furniture, the pecupar views of Chinese culture, philosophy and design can be felt and the pecupar national characteristics can be observed. The national characteristics of Chinese furniture are quite obvious; but a systematic research on it cannot be found both at home and broad. This thesis explores the design karma of Chinese furniture from the perspectives of cultural anthropology, phenomenology and the principle of "comprehending principles in culture, and interpreting furniture in principles ". Based on the relation with substance, man, pfe, time, shape and harmony, the thesis elaborates the formation karma of Chinese furniture and reveals the national characteristics of it.The design of Chinese furniture is exquisite in functions and ingenious in substance. With regard to the category, based on sitting, lying, carrying, storing, separating, hanging, etc in daily pfe, China has initiated unique sitting furniture, lying furniture, carrying furniture, storing furniture, separating furniture and hanging furniture. As to the shape, Chinese furniture has experienced the change from short models to tall models. In respect of the style, Chinese furniture has evolved from the etiquette of the Shang and the Zhou Dynasties; the solemnity of the Han and the Wei Dynasties; the luxury of the Sui and the Tang Dynasties; the elegance of the Song and the Yuan Dynasties; and the simple beauty of the Ming Dynasty to the overlaboration of the Qing Dynasty, different eras reflecting their corresponding features. In culture, humanity, courtesy, and neutrapzation are the impped reasons for Chinese furniture. In philosophy,’harmony between human and nature’and’using things to bear the principles’are the essence of traditional Chinese furniture design. In aesthetics,’charm, beauty, elegance and smooth’, being the main aesthetic features of Chinese furniture, respectively account for the homophony of’shape, decoration, color and texture’. In ideology, the poetic cultural characteristics endue the Chinese people with poetic creation and human expression in the furniture. Geographically, China’s vast territory brings up noticeable geographic features of Chinese furniture and it also brings up the lo

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