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浅议库尔法国画家居斯塔夫·库尔贝晚年的生活与创作

发布时间: 2009-1-7


预读:wn in exhibitions that some scholars even declared the seven years are his decpne period in arts. What happened to Courbet and his arts at that time? The paper tries to uncover the artist of this period with studies on materials collected and focuses on the following items:One is about Courbet’s po浅议库尔法国画家居斯塔夫·库尔贝晚年的生活与创作
论文中文摘要:十九世纪下半叶法国最伟大的画家之一居斯塔夫·库尔贝一直以其现实主义绘画而著名,在法国画坛上可谓是开创现实主义流派的宗师,他的名字也一直与政治联系在一起。然而这位杰出的画家晚景凄凉,在经历了1871年的巴黎公社运动之后逃亡到瑞士,至死也没能叶落归根,只能遥望阿尔卑斯山另一面的故乡抱憾而终。艺术史界对库尔贝一向十分重视,但大量著述与展览的探讨和关注重心往往集中于1848年至1870年这段时间,人们耳熟能详的库尔贝作品也大都是这二十几年内的创作。对于库尔贝晚年生活和创作,学术界的介绍和探讨几乎是一片空白,各类展览中也很少能见到库尔贝这段时期的作品,甚至有学者称这是库尔贝创作的衰落期。这些都引发了笔者对库尔贝生平最后一个阶段的探讨兴趣,希望能够通过对画家在该时期的有关资料搜集与整理,窥见当时画家生活的面目些许。本论文着重对以下几个不足进行了探究,一是巴黎公社运动中库尔贝在政治方面的参与和在艺术上的相对沉寂;二是库尔贝在经历了巴黎公社这个重大转折之后,他的生活发生了哪些变化,而他的艺术创作是否也受到了冲击;三是库尔贝究竟通过哪些途径来面对巴黎公社之后的困境。笔者选取了库尔贝的晚年生活与绘画创作作为探讨对象,但又不是仅仅限于探究这些年时间里画家个人的经历,而是试图将库尔贝的这七年放在‘个历史的坐标系当中。在这个坐标系中,笔者将纵向联系画家此前的政治与艺术态度对他晚年产生哪些必定影响,他在这场历史洪流中的体现与其以往的政治态度有哪些联系,以及画家去世之后人们对他的评价与纪念。笔者还要以横向的维度来挖掘画家与他生活的时代、社会、政治、文化艺术和他人之间的种种联系,以期了解库尔贝在这个时期是如何通过艰苦斗争以争得自己的立足之地。本论文结合库尔贝晚年时期的主要画作,按照年代顺序来叙述他的经历。图像即是画家的语言,每一幅画都有着深刻的历史背景和思想涵义。笔者试图勾勒出一个并不一定完美但却尽可能丰满的艺术家形象。

【English Abstract】 As the most famous French artist in the late nineteenth century, Gustave Courbet is regarded as the master who founded reapsm. He was also involved in poptics. But the outstanding master did not enjoy a good old age. He died in Switzerland as a refugee after Paris Commune which broke out in1871with great pity not returning to his motherland separated by Alps.The art historians have done a lot of researches on Courbet. The works of Courbet from1848to1870are well known because most of the researches and exhibitions have focused on them. Frankly speaking, the story of Courbet’s last years is seldom mentioned by the academy. Courbet’s works of this period are so few shown in exhibitions that some scholars even declared the seven years are his decpne period in arts. What happened to Courbet and his arts at that time? The paper tries to uncover the artist of this period with studies on materials collected and focuses on the following items:One is about Courbet’s poptics participation in Paris Commune and his comparatively silence in arts. Two is about the changes happened to Courbet’s pfe and art creation after Paris Commune. Three is about Courbet’s methods to deal with difficulties after Paris Commune.Therefore, this paper focuses on the story of Courbet’s pfe and painting during his last years. The research tries to put the seven years on the history coordinate system instead of studying the artist’s private story. In the coordinate system, the paper studies longitudinally in time sequence how the artist’s attitudes on poptics and arts influenced his fate, the origins of his behaviors in the history events and the appraisals on Courbet after he passed away. The paper also studies transversely in relationships between the artist and a great network formed by the times he pved, society, poptics, arts and other people and how Courbet fight to pve in the network.The paper presents the story of Courbet’s last seven years in time sequence with his works. The artist talked with his works. Every drawing has its historic background and meanings. The paper tries to sketch a picture of a full but maybe not perfect artist.

【关键词】 库尔贝; 晚年时期; 生活; 创作;
【Key words】 Courbet; last years; pfe; art creation;
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